; Optimistic rollups limit on-chain computation by performing proof of confirmation only if a node suspects that a fraudulent transaction is occurring. By performing validity proofs only when fraud is suspected, optimistic rollups increase transaction speed and throughput even further.
There’s also no gas limit, so smart contract developers can take their projects to the next level. Arbitrum is especially beneficial for developers. It’s compatible with EVM and uses Solidity code, without compiler or version restrictions.
Laddove possibile, forniamo dati in tempo reale. Tuttavia, a causa delle restrizioni imposte da alcune borse, alcuni dati sono in differita. I dati per il mercato azionario americano sono forniti in tempo reale da CBOE BZX. Di conseguenza, per avere certi flussi in tempo reale è necessario procedere con l'acquisto dei pacchetti desiderati tramite la pagina sottostante.
Describes the connection between a cryptocurrency or token and the price of a fiat currency. Creating an automatic way to maintain the peg between a cryptocurrency and a fiat currency, enabled the development of Stablecoins.
If a user misbehaves, MAD-HTLC incentivizes the miners to confiscate all their funds. Many of these, including operational payment channels, use a building block called Hased Time-Locked Contract (HTLC). MAD-HTLC employs a novel approach of utilizing the existing blockchain operators, called miners, as part of the design. We prove that MAD-HTLC satisfies HTLC-Spec with game-theoretic analysis and instantiate it on Bitcoin's operational blockchain. However, as the demand grows and other revenue components shrink, miners are motivated to fully optimize their fund intake. Notably, current miner software makes only little effort to optimize revenue, since the advantage is relatively small. By patching the standard Bitcoin client, we demonstrate such an optimization is easy to implement, making the miners natural enforcers of MAD-HTLC. Finally, we show how vulerable HTLC is to bribery attacks. For the technical paper, see here. An attacker can incentivize miners to prefer their transactions by offering high transaction fees. In this work, we distill from HTLC a specification (HTLCSpec), and present an implementation called Mutual-Assured-Distruction Hashed Time-Locked Contract (MAD-HTCL). We demonstrate this can be easily implemented by patching Bitcoin client, and use game theoretic tools to qualitatively tighten the known cost bound of such bribery attacks. Smart contracts and transactions allow users to implement elaborate constructions on cryptocurrency blockchains like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Libra.
(Eurocrypt 2015) and Pass et al. Over the past five years, cryptocurrency a significant line of research has investigated the blockchain consensus problem in the general permissionless setting, where protocol nodes can leave and join dynamically. (Crypto 2020) introduced a third useful property for consensus protocols, transaction-order-fairness. However, consistency and liveness do not provide any guarantees on the relationship between the order in which transactions arrive into the network and the finalized order in the ledger, making protocols prone to transaction order-manipulation attacks. As a solution, a recent paper by Kelkar et al. (Eurocrypt 2017) showed the security properties of consistency and liveness for Nakamoto seminal proof-of-work protocol. Our protocols work in a synchronous network and use an underlying longest-chain blockchain. For further information, please see our paper. As an added contribution, we show that any fair ordering protocol achieves a powerful zero-block confirmation property, through which honest transactions can be securely confirmed even before they are included in any block. The work of Garay et al. Their model was limited to the classical (permissioned) setting, where the set of protocol nodes is fixed a priori, and does not fit well for permissionless environments where order-manipulation attacks have been most prominent. In this work, we initiate the investigation of order-fairness in the permissionless setting and provide two protocols that realize it.
Describes an asset, crypto like cryptocurrency, as being overvalued due to excessive buying. There are technical indicators that are employed to try to establish Overbought or Oversold conditions, see Relative Strength Index.
In particular, FLAFOL is the first logic to provide a non-interference guarantee while supporting all connectives of first-order logic. We present the Flow-Limited Authorization First-Order Logic (FLAFOL), a logic for reasoning about authorization decisions in the presence of information-flow policies. All theorems in this paper are proven in Coq. We formalize the FLAFOL proof system, characterize its proof-theoretic properties, and develop its security guarantees. For more information, please see our paper. Furthermore, this guarantee is the first to combine the notions of non-interference from both authorization logic and information-flow systems.